Health, Economic and Political Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic

A Gulbenkian Future Forum Online Conference

Event Slider

A pandemia da Covid-19 levanta desafios fundamentais para o nosso futuro imediato e a longo prazo tanto ao nível da saúde, como a nível político e económico. O objetivo desta conferência é abordar estes desafios.

O primeiro painel tratará a emergência de saúde pública sem precedentes que o mundo enfrenta devido à Covid-19. O seu objetivo é compreender melhor esta emergência de saúde pública e qual a melhor maneira de a abordar. Esta mesma emergência levanta também a possibilidade de uma grave crise económica.

O segundo painel irá discutir a natureza e a dimensão possíveis desta crise, bem como as medidas necessárias para a abordar ao nível nacional e europeu.

O terceiro painel irá, por sua vez, discutir as consequências políticas e democráticas da crise. Há quem tenha destacado que o uso de poderes extraordinários e o apelo de um sentido forte de autoridade podem constituir um desafio para a democracia liberal. Outros, por seu turno, têm sublinhado que o papel relevante dos peritos e da ciência e a preocupação com a transparência podem levar a um reforço da democracia liberal. As consequências geopolíticas desta crise em termos da distribuição de poder no mundo e o seu impacto na democracia serão o tema do último painel.

A conferência junta um grupo de notáveis académicos e especialistas em políticas públicas das áreas da saúde, da economia e da política.


Durante o primeiro painel desta conferência foram colocadas muitas questões pelo público que não tiveram tempo de ser respondidas. Selecionámos algumas delas e recolhemos as respostas dos especialistas, que pode ler neste artigo.

Saiba mais

TRANSMISSÃO 

 

 


Programa

14:00   Opening and introduction

Isabel Mota, President of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation
Miguel Poiares Maduro, President of the Gulbenkian Future Forum Scientific Committee

 

14:15 – 15:30   Panel 1 – A Health Crisis

Mónica Bettencourt-Dias, Director of the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (Moderator)
Akiko Iwasaki, Principal Investigator at Yale School of Medicine
Filipe Froes, Head of Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Pulido Valente
Gabriela Gomes, Reader in Biomathematics at Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Miguel Soares, Principal Investigator at Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência
Stewart Cole, Director of the Pasteur Institute

 

15:35 – 16:50   Panel 2 – An Economic Crisis

António Vicente, Member of the Scientific Committee of the Gulbenkian Future Forum (Moderator)
Alexander Stubb, Former Prime Minister of Finland
David Levine, Joint-Chair of the Department of Economics at European University Institute
Fernando Alexandre, Associate Professor of the Department of Economics at Universidade do Minho
Ricardo Reis, A. W. Phillips Professor of Economics at London School of Economics
Susana Peralta, Associate Professor, NOVA School of Business and Economics

 

16:55 – 18:10   Panel 3 – A Political Crisis

Raquel Vaz Pinto, Member of the Scientific Committee of the Gulbenkian Future Forum (Moderator)
Daniel Innerarity, Director of the Globernance Centre – Instituto de Gobernanza Democrática
Kim Lane Scheppele, Laurance Professor of the University Centre for Human Values at Princeton University
Marina Costa Lobo, Political Scientist of the Institute of Social Sciences at University of Lisbon
Paul Kahn, W. Winner Director of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School

 

18:10   Closing Remarks

José Manuel Durão Barroso, Chairman of Goldman Sachs International, Former Prime Minister of Portugal and Former President of the European Comission 


ORADORES

[fcg-accordion title="Isabel Mota" content="%3Cp%3EIsabel%20Mota%20has%20been%20Chairman%20of%20the%20Board%20of%20Trustees%20of%20the%20Calouste%20Gulbenkian%20Foundation%20since%20May%202017.%20She%20is%20also%20Chairman%20of%20the%20Board%20of%20Directors%20of%20Maison%20du%20Portugal%20%E2%80%93%20Andr%C3%A9%20de%20Gouveia%2C%20the%20Cit%C3%A9%20Internationale%20Universitaire%20de%20Paris%20and%20a%20non-executive%20Member%20of%20the%20Board%20of%20Directors%20of%20Banco%20Santander-Totta.%20With%20a%20degree%20in%20Finance%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Lisbon%20(1973)%2C%20she%20was%20Assistant%20Professor%20at%20the%20Higher%20Institute%20of%20Economics%2C%20Deputy%20Director%20of%20the%20Foreign%20Economic%20Cooperation%20Office%20of%20the%20Ministry%20of%20Finance%20and%20Counsellor%20at%20the%20Permanent%20Representation%20of%20Portugal%20in%20Brussels.%20As%20Secretary%20of%20State%20for%20Planning%20and%20Regional%20Development%20(1987-1995)%2C%20she%20headed%20the%20negotiations%20with%20the%20European%20Union%20on%20the%20Structural%20and%20Cohesion%20Funds%20for%20Portugal.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Miguel Poiares Maduro" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EMiguel%20Poiares%20Maduro%20is%20the%20Director%20of%20the%20School%20of%20Transnational%20Governance%20-%20European%20University%20Institute.%20Former%20Minister%20for%20Regional%20Development%20of%20the%20Portuguese%20Government%20(2013-2015)%2C%20he%20holds%20a%20Law%20degree%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Lisbon%20and%20a%20Doctorate%20from%20the%20European%20University%20Institute%20in%20Florence%2C%20where%20he%20was%20awarded%20best%20doctoral%20thesis%20and%20best%20researcher%20from%20the%20Law%20Department.%20He%20was%20Advocate%20General%20at%20the%20Court%20of%20Justice%20of%20the%20European%20Communities%2C%20Member%20of%20the%20European%20Union%20High%20Level%20Group%20on%20Freedom%20of%20the%20Media%20and%20Pluralism%2C%20Professor%20at%20the%20Nova%20University%20of%20Lisbon%2C%20with%20which%20he%20continues%20to%20collaborate%2C%20Visiting%20Lecturer%20at%20the%20Yale%20Law%20School%2C%20the%20Centre%20for%20Constitutional%20Studies%20in%20Madrid%2C%20the%20University%20of%20Chicago%20and%20the%20London%20School%20of%20Economics.%20He%20is%20also%20President%20of%20the%20Scientific%20Committee%20of%20the%20Gulbenkian%20Future%20Forum.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Mónica Bettencourt-Dias" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EM%C3%B3nica%20Bettencourt-Dias%20is%20a%20biochemist%20and%20cellular%20biologist%2C%20head%20of%20the%20Cell%20Cycle%20Regulation%20Research%20Group%20at%20the%20Instituto%20Gulbenkian%20de%20Ci%C3%AAncia.%20Her%20research%20involves%20cell%20cycle%20regulation%2C%20for%20which%20she%20has%20been%20recognized%20with%20the%20Pfizer%20Award%20for%20Basic%20Research%2C%20the%20Keith%20Porter%20Prize%20from%20the%20American%20Society%20for%20Cell%20Biology%20and%20the%20Eppendorf%20Young%20European%20Investigator%20Award.%20She%20was%20also%20selected%2C%20in%202009%2C%20as%20a%20European%20Molecular%20Biology%20Organization%20Young%20Investigator%20Fellow%20and%20inducted%20as%20a%20member%20of%20the%20EMBO%20in%202015.%20Scientific%20Director%20of%20the%20Instituto%20Gulbenkian%20de%20Ci%C3%AAncia%20since%20February%202018%2C%20she%20was%20named%2C%20in%20January%202020%2C%20co-President%20of%20EU-life%2C%20an%20alliance%20of%20leading%20research%20centers%20in%20life%20sciences.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Akiko Iwasaki" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EAkiko%20Iwasaki%20received%20her%20Ph.D.%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Toronto%20(1998)%20and%20had%20her%20postdoctoral%20training%20from%20the%20National%20Institutes%20of%20Health%2C%20USA%20(1998-2000).%20She%20joined%20Yale%20University%20in%202000%20and%20is%20currently%20Waldemar%20Von%20Zedtwitz%20Professor%20of%20Immunobiology%2C%20Professor%20of%20molecular%2C%20cellular%20and%20developmental%20biology%2C%20Professor%20of%20dermatology%2C%20and%20an%20Investigator%20for%20the%20Howard%20Hughes%20Medical%20Institute.%20Iwasaki%E2%80%99s%20research%20focuses%20on%20the%20mechanisms%20of%20immune%20defense%20against%20viruses%20at%20the%20mucosal%20surfaces.%20Her%20laboratory%20is%20interested%20in%20how%20innate%20recognition%20of%20viral%20infections%20lead%20to%20the%20generation%20of%20adaptive%20immunity%20and%20how%20adaptive%20immunity%20mediates%20protection%20against%20subsequent%20viral%20challenge.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Filipe Froes" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EFilipe%20Froes%20is%20the%20Head%20of%20Intensive%20Care%20Unit%20of%20Hospital%20Pulido%20Valente%20(Centro%20Hospitalar%20Lisboa%20Norte)%20and%20Advisor%20to%20the%20Portuguese%20Directorate-General%20for%20Health%2FDepartment%20of%20Health.%20His%20professional%20activity%20is%20centered%20on%20respiratory%20diseases%20and%20intensive%20care%20medicine%20with%20a%20focus%20on%20infections%20and%20respiratory%20failure.%20He%20is%20a%20Member%20of%20Portuguese%20Technical%20Committee%20on%20Immunization%2C%20Directorate-General%20for%20Health.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Gabriela Gomes" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EGabriela%20Gomes%20is%20Reader%20in%20Biomathematics.%20She%20graduated%20in%20Applied%20Mathematics%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Porto%20(1987)%20and%20completed%20her%20MSc%20and%20PhD%20in%20Mathematics%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Warwick%20(1990%20and%201993).%C2%A0In%202002%2C%20established%20her%20independent%20group%20at%20the%20Gulbenkian%20Science%20Institute%2C%20initially%20supported%20by%20a%20Marie%20Curie%20Excellence%20Grant%2C%20with%20projects%20ranging%20from%20fundamental%20mathematical%20concepts%20to%20management%20of%20population%20and%20ecosystem%20health%2C%20public%20engagement%20in%20science%20and%20development%20of%20research%20infrastructures.%20She%20has%20a%20joint%20appointment%20between%20the%20Research%20Centre%20in%20Biodiversity%20and%20Genetic%20Resources%2C%20University%20of%20Porto%2C%20and%20the%20Liverpool%20School%20of%20Tropical%20Medicine.%20She%20held%20visiting%20positions%20at%20several%20universities%20-%20Minnesota%2C%20Ohio%20and%20S%C3%A3o%20Paulo.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Miguel Soares" content="%3Cp%3EMiguel%20Soares%20is%20a%20Principal%20Investigator%20at%20Instituto%20Gulbenkian%20Ci%C3%AAncia%20and%20an%20invited%20professor%20at%20Lisbon%20Medical%20School%2C%20University%20of%20Lisboa.%20He%20obtained%20his%20BS%20in%20biology%20(1990)%2C%20MS%20in%20cellular%20biology%20(1994)%20and%20Ph.D.%20in%20Science%20(1995)%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Louvain%20(Belgium).%20He%20became%20a%20research%20fellow%20in%20the%20laboratory%20of%20Prof.%20Fritz%20H.%20Bach%20at%20the%20Beth%20Israel%20Deaconess%20Medical%20Center%2C%20Harvard%20Medical%20School%2C%20Boston%20(1995-1998)%2C%20then%20instructor%20in%20surgery%20(1998-2004)%20and%20lecturer%20(2003-2004).%20In%202004%2C%20he%20moved%20to%20the%20Instituto%20Gulbenkian%20de%20Ci%C3%AAncia%20where%20he%20leads%20the%20Inflammation%20Laboratory%2C%20with%20the%20aim%20of%20understanding%20the%20cellular%20and%20molecular%20mechanisms%20regulating%20inflammation%20and%20how%20these%20can%20be%20used%20therapeutically%20to%20overcome%20the%20pathological%20outcome%20of%20immune%20mediated%20inflammatory%20diseases.%20In%202016%2C%20his%20research%20group%20was%20selected%20by%20The%20Bill%20and%20Melinda%20Gates%20Foundation%20to%20help%20finding%20a%20vaccine%20against%20malaria.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Stewart Cole" content="%3Cp%3EStewart%20Cole%20is%20the%20Director%20of%20the%20Pasteur%20Institute.%20He%20is%20an%20internationally%20renowned%20scientist%20and%20Professor%20of%20Microbial%20Pathogenesis.%20Since%202007%20he%20has%20also%20served%20as%20Professor%20and%20Director%20of%20the%20Global%20Health%20Institute%20at%20the%20%C3%89cole%20Polytechnique%20F%C3%A9d%C3%A9rale%20de%20Lausanne%2C%20a%20world-leading%20education%20and%20research%20center.%20In%202009%2C%20he%20was%20awarded%20the%20World%20Health%20Organization%E2%80%99s%20prestigious%20Stop-TB%20Partnership%20Kochon%20Prize%20for%20his%20leadership%20and%20groundbreaking%20accomplishments%20in%20genetic%20research%20on%20M.%20tuberculosis%20and%20his%20contribution%20to%20novel%20therapeutic%20strategies%20for%20tackling%20TB.%20During%20his%20career%2C%20he%20has%20been%20involved%20in%20the%20work%20of%20several%20foundations%20and%20scientific%20committees%2C%20and%20was%20notably%20Chair%20of%20the%20Board%20of%20the%20Innovative%20Medicine%20for%20Tuberculosis%20Foundation%20and%20President%20of%20the%20Commission%20M%C3%A9dicale%20for%20the%20Fondation%20Raoul%20Follereau.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="António Vicente" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EAnt%C3%B3nio%20Vicente%20works%20for%20the%20European%20Commission.%20From%202014%20to%202019%2C%20Head%20of%20Cabinet%20of%20the%20European%20Commissioner%20for%20Research%2C%20Science%20and%20Innovation%2C%20overseeing%20Horizon%202020.%20Chief%20of%20staff%20of%20the%20Secretary%20of%20State%20to%20the%20Prime%20Minister%20of%20Portugal%20coordinating%20the%20implementation%20of%20the%20EU%2FIMF%20Portuguese%20Adjustment%20Programme.%20Started%20his%20career%20at%20the%20Luso-American%20Foundation%20and%20was%2C%20from%202006%20to%202011%2C%20a%20regular%20contributor%20to%20the%20Economist%20Intelligence%20Unit.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="David K. Levine" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EDavid%20K.%20Levine%20is%20Department%20of%20Economics%20and%20Robert%20Schuman%20Centre%20for%20Advanced%20Study%20Joint%20Chair%20at%20the%20European%20University%20Institute%2C%20a%20Fellow%20of%20the%20Econometric%20Society%2C%20an%20Economic%20Theory%20Fellow%2C%20a%20Research%20Associate%20of%20the%20NBER%20and%20the%20Federal%20Reserve%20Bank%20of%20St.%20Louis.%20His%20current%20research%20interests%20include%20the%20study%20of%20intellectual%20property%20and%20endogenous%20growth%20in%20dynamic%20general%20equilibrium%20models%2C%20models%20of%20self-control%2C%20of%20the%20endogenous%20formation%20of%20preferences%2C%20institutions%20and%20social%20norms%2C%20learning%20in%20games%2C%20evolutionary%20game%20theory%2C%20virtual%20economies%20and%20the%20application%20of%20game%20theory%20to%20experimental%20economics.%20David%20K.%20Levine%20received%20his%20undergraduate%20degree%20in%20Mathematics%20from%20UCLA%20(1977)%2C%20the%20Daus%20Prize%2C%20a%20Master's%20degree%20in%20Economics%3B%20his%20graduate%20training%20was%20completed%20with%20a%20Ph.D.%20in%20Economics%20at%20MIT%20in%201981.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Ricardo Reis" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3ERicardo%20Reis%20is%20the%20A.W.%20Phillips%20Professor%20of%20Economics%20at%20the%20London%20School%20of%20Economics.%20He%20is%20an%20Academic%20Consultant%20at%20the%20Bank%20of%20England%20and%20the%20Federal%20Reserve%20System%2C%20he%20directs%20the%20ESRC%20Centre%20for%20Macroeconomics%20in%20the%20UK%2C%20is%20a%20recipient%20of%20an%20ERC%20grant%20from%20the%20EU%20and%20serves%20on%20the%20council%20or%20as%20an%20Advisor%20of%20multiple%20organizations.%20His%20main%20areas%20of%20research%20are%20inflation%20expectations%2C%20unconventional%20monetary%20policies%20and%20the%20central%20bank%E2%80%99s%20balance%20sheet%2C%20disagreement%20and%20inattention%2C%20business%20cycle%20models%20with%20inequality%2C%20automatic%20stabilizers%2C%20sovereign-bond%20backed%20securities%20and%20the%20role%20of%20capital%20misallocation%20in%20the%20European%20slump%20and%20crisis.%20Ricardo%20Reis%20received%20his%20PhD%20from%20Harvard%20University%20after%20studying%20at%20Columbia%20University%20and%20Princeton%20University.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Susana Peralta" content="%3Cp%3ESusana%20Peralta%20holds%20a%20PhD%20in%20Economics%20from%20the%20Universit%C3%A9%20Catholique%20de%20Louvain.%20Her%20research%20focus%20on%20the%20economics%20of%20multi-layered%20governments%2C%20including%20tax%20competition%20and%20political%20economy%20issues.%C2%A0She%20joined%20the%20Nova%20School%20of%20Business%20and%20Economics%20in%202004.%20She%20is%20a%20Research%20Associate%20of%20CEPR%20and%20CORE-UCL.%3C%2Fp%3E%0A%3Cp%3EHer%20work%20is%20published%20in%20several%20academic%20journals.%20She%20teaches%20or%20has%20taught%20several%20courses%20at%20Nova%20SBE%2C%20including%20Public%20Economics%2C%20Game%20Theory%2C%20Microeconomics%2C%20and%20Poverty%3A%20concepts%20and%20challenges.%20She%20is%20currently%20the%20academic%20director%20of%20the%20MSc%20in%20Economics%2C%20the%20Research%20Master%20and%20the%20PhD%20in%20Economics.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Alexander Stubb" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EAlexander%20Stubb%20has%20served%20as%20Prime%20Minister%2C%20Finance%20Minister%2C%20Foreign%20Minister%2C%20Trade%20and%20Europe%20Minister%20of%20Finland%20(2008-2016).%20He%20was%20a%20Member%20of%20the%20European%20Parliament%20(2004-2008)%20and%20National%20Parliament%20(2011-2017)%2C%20the%20Chairman%20of%20the%20National%20Coalition%20Party%20(Kokoomus)%20(2014-2016)%20and%20Vice%20President%20of%20the%20European%20Investment%20Bank%20(2017-2020).%20He%20holds%20a%20Ph.D.%20in%20international%20relations%20from%20the%20London%20School%20of%20Economics%2C%20a%20Master%E2%80%99s%20degree%20in%20EU%20administration%20from%20the%20College%20of%20Europe%20in%20Bruges%20and%20a%20B.A.%20in%20political%20science%20from%20Furman%20University%20in%20South%20Carolina.%20He%20worked%20as%20Adviser%20at%20the%20Finnish%20Ministry%20for%20Foreign%20Affairs%20in%20Helsinki%20and%20in%20Brussels%20and%20in%20President%20Romano%20Prodi%E2%80%99s%20team%20at%20the%20European%20Commission.%20He%20was%20a%20Visiting%20Professor%20at%20the%20College%20of%20Europe%20in%20Bruges.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Fernando Alexandre" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EFernando%20Alexandre%20holds%20a%20PhD%20in%20Economics%20from%20the%20University%20of%20London%20-%20Birkbech%20College%20and%20a%20Master%20in%20Economics%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Coimbra.%20Formerly%2C%20he%20was%20Pro-Rector%20for%20the%20Valorization%20of%20Knowledge%2C%20Head%20of%20the%20School%20of%20Management%20and%20Economics%2C%20President%20of%20the%20Pedagogical%20Council%20and%20Director%20of%20the%20Department%20of%20Economics%20(University%20of%20Minho).%20Between%202013%20and%202015%2C%20he%20was%20Deputy%20Secretary%20of%20State%20to%20the%20Minister%20for%20Internal%20Administration.%20His%20current%20research%20interests%20include%20Macroeconomics%2C%20Monetary%20and%20Financial%20Economics%2C%20Portuguese%20Economy%2C%20Social%20Security.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Raquel Vaz-Pinto" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p2%22%3ERaquel%20Vaz-Pinto%20is%20a%20Researcher%20of%20the%20Portuguese%20Institute%20of%20International%20Relations%20at%20Nova%20University%20of%20Lisbon%2C%20where%20she%20teaches%20Asian%20Studies.%20She%20was%20President%20of%20the%20Portuguese%20Political%20Science%20Association%20(2012-2016).%20Her%20research%20interests%20are%20Chinese%20foreign%20policy%20and%20strategy%3B%20US%20Grand%20Strategy%20and%20the%20Asia-Pacific%3B%20Religion%20in%20International%20Relations%3B%20the%20Portuguese%20and%20the%20World%3B%20and%20Football%20and%20International%20Relations.%20She%20is%20a%20Member%20of%20the%20Board%20of%20IDL%20%E2%80%93%20Instituto%20Amaro%20da%20Costa%20and%20Clube%20de%20Lisboa%2C%20and%20a%20Member%20of%20the%20Scientific%20Committee%20of%20the%20Gulbenkian%20Future%20Forum.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Daniel Innerarity" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EDaniel%20Innerarity%20is%20a%20Professor%20of%20political%20and%20social%20philosophy%2C%20Ikerbasque%20Researcher%20at%20the%20University%20of%20the%20Basque%20Country%20and%20Director%20of%20the%20Instituto%20de%20Gobernanza%20Democr%C3%A1tica.%20Former%20Fellow%20of%20the%20Fundaci%C3%B3n%20Alexander%20von%20Humboldt%20at%20the%20University%20of%20Munich%2C%20Visiting%20Professor%20at%20the%20University%20of%20Paris%201%20%E2%80%93%20Sorbonne%2C%20Visiting%20Professor%20at%20the%20Robert%20Schuman%20in%20the%20European%20University%20Institute%20of%20Florence%3B%20Visiting%20Fellow%20in%20the%20London%20School%20of%20Economics%20and%20Political%20Science.%20He%20is%20currently%20Directeur%20d'%C3%89tudes%20Associ%C3%A9%20de%20la%20Maison%20des%20Sciences%20de%20l'Homme%20(Paris).%20He%20has%20been%20Professor%20in%20the%20Department%20of%20Philosophy%20of%20the%20University%20of%20Zaragoza%20(Spain).%20Innerarity%20is%20also%20internationally%20recognized%20as%20an%20expert%20in%20theory%20of%20democracy%20and%20government%20of%20complex%20societies.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Paul W. Kahn" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EPaul%20W.%20Kahn%20is%20Robert%20W.%20Winner%20Professor%20of%20Law%20and%20the%20Humanities%20and%20Director%20of%20the%20Orville%20H.%20Schell%2C%20Jr.%20Center%20for%20International%20Human%20Rights%20at%20Yale%20Law%20School.%20He%20teaches%20in%20the%20areas%20of%20constitutional%20law%20and%20theory%2C%20international%20law%2C%20cultural%20theory%20and%20philosophy.%20Before%20coming%20to%20Yale%2C%20in%201985%2C%20he%20clerked%20for%20Justice%20White%20in%20the%20United%20States%20Supreme%20Court%20and%20practiced%20law%20in%20Washington%2C%20D.C.%2C%20during%20which%20time%20he%20was%20on%20the%20legal%20team%20representing%20Nicaragua%20before%20the%20International%20Court%20of%20Justice.%20He%20earned%20his%20B.A.%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Chicago%20and%20his%20Ph.D.%20in%20Philosophy%20and%20J.D.%20from%20Yale.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Kim Lane Scheppele" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EKim%20Lane%20Scheppele%20is%20the%20Laurance%20S.%20Rockefeller%20Professor%20of%20Sociology%20and%20International%20Affairs%20in%20the%20Woodrow%20Wilson%20School%20and%20the%20University%20Centre%20for%20Human%20Values%20at%20Princeton%20University.%20Scheppele's%20work%20focuses%20on%20the%20intersection%20of%20constitutional%20and%20international%20law%2C%20particularly%20in%20constitutional%20systems%20under%20stress.%20She%20held%20tenure%20in%20the%20Political%20Science%20Department%20at%20the%20University%20of%20Michigan%2C%20taught%20full-time%20in%20the%20Law%20School%20at%20the%20University%20of%20Pennsylvania%2C%20was%20the%20founding%20Director%20of%20the%20gender%20program%20at%20Central%20European%20University%20Budapest%2C%20directed%20the%20Program%20in%20Law%20and%20Public%20Affairs%20at%20Princeton%20and%20has%20held%20visiting%20faculty%20positions%20in%20the%20Law%20Schools%20at%20Michigan%2C%20Yale%2C%20Harvard%2C%20Erasmus%2FRotterdam%20and%20Humboldt%2FBerlin.%20She%20is%20a%20Member%20of%20the%20Executive%20Committee%20of%20the%20International%20Association%20of%20Constitutional%20Law%2C%20elected%20as%20a%20%E2%80%9Cglobal%20jurist.%E2%80%9D%20From%202017-2019%2C%20she%20was%20the%20elected%20President%20of%20the%20Law%20and%20Society%20Association.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="Marina Costa Lobo" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EMarina%20Costa%20Lobo%20is%20a%20Political%20Scientist%20of%20the%20Institute%20of%20Social%20Sciences%20at%20University%20of%20Lisbon%2C%20specialized%20in%20Comparative%20Political%20Institutions%20and%20Behaviour.%20She%20obtained%20her%20Doctorate%20from%20Oxford%20University%20with%20a%20thesis%20about%20Prime%20Ministerial%20power%20in%20Portugal.%20She%20is%20currently%20a%20Research%20Fellow%20at%20the%20Institute%20of%20Social%20Sciences%20and%20co-Editor%20of%20the%20Journal%20South%20European%20Society%20and%20Politics.%20Her%20interests%20are%20focused%20on%20electoral%20behavior%20and%20political%20institutions%20in%20Portugal%20in%20a%20comparative%20perspective.%20She%20is%20one%20of%20the%20Executive%20Directors%20of%20the%20Portuguese%20Election%20Study%2C%20through%20which%20she%20was%20involved%20in%20several%20international%20projects%2C%20as%20Comparative%20Studies%20of%20Election%20Systems%2C%20European%20Election%20Studies%2C%20Comparative%20National%20Election%20Project%20and%20Integrated%20and%20United.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]

[fcg-accordion title="José Manuel Durão Barroso" content="%3Cp%20class%3D%22p1%22%3EJos%C3%A9%20Manuel%20Dur%C3%A3o%20Barroso%20is%20currently%20serving%20as%20Chairman%20of%20Goldman%20Sachs%20International.%20He%20previously%20served%20as%20President%20of%20the%20European%20Commission%20(2004-2014)%20and%20Prime%20Minister%20of%20Portugal%20(2002-2004).%20He%20graduated%20in%20Law%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Lisbon%2C%20subsequently%20obtained%20a%20Diploma%20in%20European%20Studies%20from%20the%20European%20University%20Institute%20and%20received%20a%20MA%20degree%20with%20honors%20in%20both%20Political%20Science%20and%20Social%20Sciences%20from%20the%20University%20of%20Geneva.%20His%20academic%20career%20continued%20as%20an%20Assistant%20Professor%20of%20the%20Faculty%20of%20Law%20at%20University%20of%20Lisbon%20and%20Director%20of%20the%20Department%20for%20International%20Relations%20at%20Lus%C3%ADada%20University.%3C%2Fp%3E" /]